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292        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

Plutarch's tales of ancient Greece and Rome, which made a life-
long impression on him.   At ten} Jean Jacques and a cousin were
sent for two years to a tutor, who taught them " Latin and all
the useless stuff that goes along with it," but yet left them free
to follow their own bent.   A year or two later he was apprenticed
to an engraver, but finding the constraint of service uncongenial
he ran away from his master and from Geneva.   Fom this time
on till he made a name for himself as a man of letters he lived a
most unsettled life, trying one occupation after another and
failing in them all.   The turning-point of his life came at the age
of twenty-five, in the course of a serious illness, when he set
himself to the study of literature and science.    It was at this
time that he made the acquaintance of the French writers of the
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries—among them Montaigne,
the Port Royalists, and Fenelon, as well as of recent English
writers like Addison, Pope,  and Locke;   whence came that
blending of French and English temper characteristic of his
later genius.   The more immediate effect was a special inclination
to educational work—created perhaps by reading Fenelon and
Locke—which led him to undertake the education of the two
sons of M. de Mably, provost of Lyons.   A year at this task was
sufficient to convince him of his unfitness for it, and yet to leave
behind a lasting interest in educational problems which issued
twenty years later in the writing of the Emile.   His first success
was won in 1750 with a Prize Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts,
followed four years later by another discourse on the subject of
social inequality.   From these apprentice efforts he passed on to
Ms three master works:  the New Helo'ise (1761), a romance of
love and domestic life after the manner of Richardson, the Social
Contract (1762), which with the Discourse on Inequality provided
the leaders of the French Revolution with their main ideas about
government, and the Emile, his chief work on education and the
most representative of all his writings.  TheEVrafe was immediately
condemned both by Catholic Paris and Protestant Geneva on
account of a deistic treatise (The Savoyard Vicar's Confession of
Faith) which it included, and Rousseau was driven into an exile
made doubly grievous by the mania of persecution that obsessed
him.   After 1762 he wrote copious autobiographical works, of
winch the Confessions is the best known, but the work that is of
enduring merit was all accomplished in the brief space of ten